Vodafone 2024 Annual Report

148 Vodafone Group Plc Annual Report 2024

Notes to the consolidated financial statements (continued) 148 Vodafone Group Plc Annual Report 2024 2020 2. Revenue disaggregation and segmental analysis The Group’s businesses are managed on a geographical basis. Selected financial data is presented on this basis below. Accounting policies Revenue When the Group enters into an agreement with a customer, goods and services deliverable under the contract are identified as separate performance obligations (‘obligations’) to the extent that the customer can benefit from the goods or services on their own and that the separate goods and services are considered distinct from other goods and services in the agreement. Where individual goods and services do not meet the criteria to be identified as separate obligations they are aggregated with other goods and/or services in the agreement until a separate obligation is identified. The obligations identified will depend on the nature of individual customer contracts, but might typically be separately identified for mobile handsets, other equipment such as set-top boxes and routers provided to customers and services provided to customers such as mobile and fixed line communication services. The Group’s digital services and Internet of Things (‘IoT’) customer offers typically include separate obligations for communications services, as well as equipment and software or software as a service (‘SaaS’). Where goods and services have a functional dependency (for example, a fixed line router can only be used with the Group’s services) this does not, in isolation, prevent those goods or services from being assessed as separate obligations. Activities relating to connecting customers to the Group’s network for the future provision of services are not considered to meet the criteria to be recognised as obligations except to the extent that the control of related equipment passes to customers. The Group determines the transaction price to which it expects to be entitled in return for providing the promised obligations to the customer based on the committed contractual amounts, net of sales taxes and discounts. Where indirect channel dealers, such as retailers, acquire customer contracts on behalf of the Group and receive commission, any commissions that the dealer is compelled to use to fund discounts or other incentives to the customer are treated as payments to the customer when determining the transaction price and consequently are not included in contract acquisition costs. The transaction price is allocated between the identified obligations according to the relative standalone selling prices of the obligations. The standalone selling price of each obligation deliverable in the contract is determined according to the prices that the Group would achieve by selling the same goods and/or services included in the obligation to a similar customer on a standalone basis; where standalone selling prices are not directly observable, estimation techniques are used maximising the use of external inputs. See ‘Critical accounting judgements and key sources of estimation uncertainty’ in note 1 for details. Revenue is recognised when the respective obligations in the contract are delivered to the customer and cash collection is considered probable. Revenue for the provision of services, such as mobile airtime, fixed line broadband, other communications services and SaaS, is recognised when the Group provides the related service during the agreed service period. Revenue for device sales to end customers is generally recognised when the device is delivered to the end customer. For device sales made to intermediaries such as indirect channel dealers, revenue is recognised if control of the device has transferred to the intermediary and the intermediary has no right to return the device to receive a refund; otherwise revenue recognition is deferred until sale of the device to an end customer by the intermediary or the expiry of any right of return. Where refunds are issued to customers they are deducted from revenue in the relevant service period. When the Group has control of goods or services prior to delivery to a customer, then the Group is the principal in the sale to the customer. As a principal, receipts from, and payments to, suppliers are reported on a gross basis in revenue and operating costs. If another party has control of goods or services prior to transfer to a customer, then the Group is acting as an agent for the other party and revenue in respect of the relevant obligations is recognised net of any related payments to the supplier and recognised revenue represents the margin earned by the Group. See ‘Critical accounting judgements and key sources of estimation uncertainty’ in note 1 for details. Customers typically pay in advance for prepay mobile services and monthly for other communication services. Customers typically pay for handsets and other equipment either up-front at the time of sale or over the term of the related service agreement. When revenue recognised in respect of a customer contract exceeds amounts received or receivable from a customer at that time a contract asset is recognised; contract assets will typically be recognised for handsets or other equipment provided to customers where payment is recovered by the Group via future service fees. Once the amount receivable becomes conditional only on the passage of time, the contract asset becomes a trade receivable (see note 14 ‘Trade and other receivables’). If amounts received or receivable from a customer exceed revenue recognised for a contract, for example if the Group receives an advance payment from a customer, a contract liability is recognised. When contract assets or liabilities are recognised, a financing component may exist in the contract; this is typically the case when a handset or other equipment is provided to a customer up-front but payment is received over the term of the related service agreement, in which case the customer is deemed to have received financing. If a significant financing component is provided to the customer, the transaction price is reduced and interest revenue is recognised over the customer’s payment period using an interest rate reflecting the relevant central bank rates and customer credit risk. Contract-related costs When costs directly relating to a specific contract are incurred prior to recognising revenue for a related obligation, and those costs enhance the ability of the Group to deliver an obligation and are expected to be recovered, then those costs are recognised in the consolidated statement of financial position as fulfilment costs and are recognised as expenses in line with the recognition of revenue when the related obligation is delivered. The direct and incremental costs of acquiring a contract including, for example, certain commissions payable to staff or agents for acquiring customers on behalf of the Group, are recognised as contract acquisition cost assets in the consolidated statement of financial position when the related payment obligation is recorded. Costs are recognised as an expense in line with the recognition of the related revenue that is expected to be earned by the Group; typically this is over the customer contract period as new commissions are payable on contract renewal. Certain amounts payable to agents are deducted from revenue recognised (see above). Strategic report Governance Financials Other information

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