Vodafone 2024 Annual Report

Notes to the consolidated financial statements (continued) 140 Vodafone Group Plc Annual Report 2024 2020 1. Basis of preparation (continued) Allocation of revenue to goods and services provided to customers 140 Vodafone Group Plc Annual Report 2024 Strategic report Governance


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Revenue is recognised when goods and services are delivered to customers (see note 2 ‘Revenue disaggregation and segmental analysis’). Goods and services may be delivered to a customer at different times under the same contract, hence it is necessary to allocate the amount payable by the customer between goods and services on a ‘relative standalone selling price basis’; this requires the identification of performance obligations (‘obligations’) and the determination of standalone selling prices for the identified obligations. The determination of obligations is, for the primary goods and services sold by the Group, not considered to be a critical accounting judgement; the Group’s policy on identifying obligations is disclosed in note 2 ‘Revenue disaggregation and segmental analysis’. The determination of standalone selling prices for identified obligations is discussed below. It is necessary to estimate the standalone price when the Group does not sell equivalent goods or services in similar circumstances on a standalone basis. When estimating the standalone price the Group maximises the use of external inputs; methods for estimating standalone prices include determining the standalone price of similar goods and services sold by the Group, observing the standalone prices for similar goods and services when sold by third parties or using a cost-plus reasonable margin approach (which is sometimes the case for devices and other equipment). Where it is not possible to reliably estimate standalone prices due to a lack of observable standalone sales or highly variable pricing, which is sometimes the case for services, the standalone price of an obligation may be determined as the transaction price less the standalone prices of other obligations in the contract. The standalone price determined for obligations materially impacts the allocation of revenue between obligations and impacts the timing of revenue when obligations are provided to customers at different times – for example, the allocation of revenue between devices, which are usually delivered up- front, and services which are typically delivered over the contract period. However, there is not considered to be a significant risk of material adjustment to the carrying value of contract-related assets or liabilities in the 12 months after the balance sheet date if these estimates were revised. Lease accounting Lease accounting under IFRS 16 is complex and necessitates the collation and processing of very large amounts of data and the increased use of management judgements and estimates to produce financial information. The most significant accounting judgements are disclosed below. Lease identification Whether the arrangement is considered a lease or a service contract depends on the analysis by management of both the legal form and substance of the arrangement between the Group and the counter-party to determine if control of an identified asset has been passed between the parties; if not, the arrangement is a service arrangement. Control exists if the Group obtains substantially all of the economic benefit from the use of the asset, and has the ability to direct its use, for a period of time. An identified asset exists where an agreement explicitly or implicitly identifies an asset or a physically distinct portion of an asset which the lessor has no substantive right to substitute. The scenarios requiring the greatest judgement include those where the arrangement is for the use of fibre or other fixed telecommunication lines. Generally, where the Group has exclusive use of a physical line it is determined that the Group can also direct the use of the line and therefore leases will be recognised. Where the Group provides access to fibre or other fixed telecommunication lines to another operator on a wholesale basis the arrangement will generally be identified as a lease, whereas when the Group provides fixed line services to an end-user, generally control over such lines is not passed to the end-user and a lease is not identified. Where the Group contracts with tower companies to utilise space on a tower for the placement of transmission equipment for a period of time, the arrangement will generally be identified as a lease. The impact of determining whether an agreement is a lease or a service depends on whether the Group is a potential lessee or lessor in the arrangement and, where the Group is a lessor, whether the arrangement is classified as an operating or finance lease. The impacts for each scenario are described below where the Group is potentially: - A lessee. The judgement impacts the nature and timing of both costs and reported assets and liabilities. A lease results in an asset and a liability being reported and depreciation and interest being recognised; the interest charge will decrease over the life of the lease. A service contract results in operating expenses being recognised evenly over the life of the contract and no assets or liabilities being recorded (other than trade payables, prepayments and accruals). - An operating lessor. The judgement impacts the nature of income recognised. An operating lease results in lease income being recognised whilst a service contract results in service revenue. Both are recognised evenly over the life of the contract. - A finance lessor. The judgement impacts the nature and timing of both income and reported assets. A finance lease results in the lease income being recognised at commencement of the lease and an asset (the net investment in the lease) being recorded. Lease term Where leases include additional optional periods after an initial lease term, significant judgement is required in determining whether these optional periods should be included when determining the lease term. The impact of this judgement is significantly greater where the Group is a lessee. As a lessee, optional periods are included in the lease term if the Group is reasonably certain it will exercise an extension option or will not exercise a termination option; this depends on an analysis by management of all relevant facts and circumstances including the leased asset’s nature and purpose, the economic and practical potential for replacing the asset and any plans that the Group has in place for the future use of the asset. Where a leased asset is highly customised (either when initially provided or as a result of leasehold improvements) or it is impractical or uneconomic to replace then the Group is more likely to judge that lease extension options are reasonably certain to be exercised. The value of the right-of-use asset and lease liability will be greater when extension options are included in the lease term. The normal approach adopted for lease term by asset class is described below.

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